Moderator: Wolfgang Gerhartz
With their synthesis apparatus, cells are important tools for the industrial production of new substances, especially biopharmaceuticals. Due to the production of primary and secondary metabolites, the metabolism of a cell is an important source of active pharmaceutical ingredients or lead substances, the semi-synthetic modification of which provides new, therapeutically valuable drugs.
An important aspect of using "cells as a chemical factory" is the production of even complex molecules in enantiomerically pure form under mild conditions, as evidenced by the large-scale production of vitamin B12. Both prokaryotic [cells of bacteria] and eukaryotic cells [cells of animals, plants and fungi (yeast)] are used to obtain pharmaceutical active ingredients.
The importance of plant ingredients such as morphine, cocaine or quinine for the development of highly effective analgesics, local anesthetics or antimalarial drugs is presented. The most recent example of therapeutically important natural substances is the development of taxanes and the discovery of the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
The metabolic products of numerous bacteria and fungi are used therapeutically today as antibiotics and are an indispensable tool for modern medicine to treat the most severe infections. Insulin is an example of how medicinal substances can be obtained from animal cells.
Biotechnological processes and thus the use of cells as active substance producers make a significant contribution to the production of effective medicinal substances, an important tool in modern medicine for the treatment of life-threatening diseases.
Moderator: still open
Diabetes is a widespread disease. About 10% of German citizens and about 6% of the world population suffer from it. The basics of the disease, the consequential damage as well as the treatment options and therapy goals are discussed.
The peptide hormone insulin plays a central role in this disease. The discovery of the hormone, its structural elucidation and other milestones in 100 years of insulin research are presented. Based on an estimate of the need for insulin, various options for its industrial production are addressed, particularly biotechnological ones. The terms 'genetic engineering' and 'biotechnology' are defined.
The genetic engineering of human insulin is a success story. The large-scale production is explained using the example of the production of human insulin in E. coli strains; the basics of biotechnological processes and protein biosynthesis are explained.
The genetic engineering of insulin analogues led to new active substance molecules with an improved profile of action being made available to diabetics. In addition, newer therapeutic approaches to diabetes treatment are presented. Some aspects of the topic "How does pharmaceutical research work?" are discussed.
Moderation: Klaus-Peter Jäckel
At the turn of the century it was hardly possible for women to penetrate the domains of men. Abitur and university studies were largely a male privilege. With acquired knowledge, a lot of persistence, a high degree of moral courage and immense hard work, some women achieved the highest educational qualifications. Not infrequently they came from wealthy families and often had male colleagues as sponsors. Some women worked as teachers, but only a few found their way into the natural sciences. Today we will talk about such strong women who have left their mark on the natural sciences - but also about women who failed and whose life-long work was not recognized and appreciated.
Did you like the lecture ? Or will you be unable to hear the lecture ? Then write to Prof. Ehlers by email; he will be happy to provide you with the slides of his presentation.
last modified: 10.11.2022 15:24 H from W.Gerhartz